atlas of elastosonography 2017 clinical applications with imaging correlations

mirko d'onofrio


with the aid of an extensive series of high-quality images, this atlas describes all the potential applications of elastosonography in routine clinical practice. after a brief introduction on technical and physical aspects, the diagnostic benefits of elastosonography in a range of settings are illustrated with the aid of numerous representative cases. the coverage encompasses pathologies of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, breast, thyroid, testis, musculoskeletal system, and vascular system. in addition, helpful correlations with imaging appearances on ultrasound and computed tomography are included. elastosonography is a powerful, relatively new diagnostic technique that assesses the elasticity of tissues as an indicator of malignancy. readers will find this book to be an excellent aid to use and interpretation of the more

intraoperative ultrasound ious in neurosurgery 2016 from standard b mode to elastosonography

francesco prada


this book is intended as a practical manual on the use of intraoperative ultrasound (ious) as a tool for imaging guidance during cranial and spinal neurosurgical procedures. full account is taken of the emergence of novel clinical applications and recent technical advances, with extensive coverage of the impact of developments such as improved probe technology, fusion imaging and virtual navigation, 3d ultrasound imaging, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and elastosonography. basic principles of ultrasound are elucidated in order to assist in the optimal use of ious and clear guidance is provided on the interpretation of imaging findings in various pathologies. informative comparisons are also made of the use of techniques such as fusion imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in general radiology and neurosurgery. the aim of the authors is to enhance the general knowledge regarding intra-operative ultrasound brain imaging, standardizing its use and exploring new techniques, leading in some way toward compensating the lack of specific training in the application of ultrasound among the neurosurgical community.
ious is a sensitive tool that can improve surgical precision and help to reduce more

measurement in ultrasound 2nd edition

paul s. sidhu

measurement and interpretation of key ultrasound parameters are essential to differentiate normal anatomy from pathology. by using measurement in ultrasound, trainee radiologists and ultrasonographers can gain an appreciation of such measurements, while practitioners can use it as a valuable reference in the clinical setting. the book follows a consistent format throughout for ease of reference and features useful information on preparation and positioning of the patient for ultrasound, the type of transducer and method to be used, the appearance of the resulting ultrasound images and the measurements to be derived from them. designed for frequent use in everyday practice, the book includes more than 150 high-quality ultrasound images annotated with key measurements and accompanied by concise explanatory text. normal variants are provided, along with ranges for features that can change during development and in disease. this new edition covers relevant developments in ultrasound. where appropriate, updated ultrasound measurements that have arisen are also included and key references are provided as an aid to further study.

small parts and superficial structures an issue of ultrasound clinics

nirvikar dahiya

editor nirvikar dahiya and authors review the current ultrasound procedures in small parts and superficial structures. articles will cover salivary glands, parathyroid, thyroid, ultrasound in evaluation of lymph node disease, ultrasound of lumps and bumps, joint ultrasound, ultrasound of tendons, scrotum and intratesticular imaging, scrotum and extratesticular imaging, hernias, breast ultrasound, peripheral nerves, and more!

abdominal ultrasound an issue of ultrasound clinics

wui k. chong

abdominal ultrasound is comprehensively reviewed by guest editor wui k. chong and authors. articles will include: ultrasound of the liver and spleen; ultrasound of the gallbladder and biliary tree; doppler us of the liver, portal hypertension, and tips; contrast evaluation of liver masses; elastography of the abdomen; the role of sonography in liver transplantation; renal ultrasound; ultrasound of the renal transplant; sonography of the retroperitoneum; ultrasound assessment of the aorta and mesenteric arteries; sonography of the bowel; ultrasound of the abdominal wall; ultrasound-guided intervention in the abdomen and pelvis, and more!

update in ultrasound an issue of radiologic clinics of north america

leslie m. scoutt

this issue of radiologic clinics, edited by leslie scoutt, concentrates on the latest updates in ultrasound. articles include: 3d sonography in gynecologic imaging; elastography; evaluation of pelvic masses; evaluation of the first trimester; contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the liver and kidney; interpreting lower extremity non invasive physiological studies; sonography in thyroid cancer; evaluation of pelvic pain; evaluation of the renal transplant; extracranial carotid ultrasound imaging; sonographic evaluation of palpable superficial masses; fetal cns; evaluation of diffuse liver disease; evaluation of scrotal masses; lower extremity venous ultrasound examination; and more!

this item is non-returnable.

practical point of care medical ultrasound

daniels, james m., hoppmann, richard a. (eds.)

this book serves as a comprehensive guide for integrating point-of-care ultrasound into clinical care. it includes detailed chapters on the use of ultrasound in cardiology, dermatology, obstetrics and gynecology, and pediatrics, as well as for the assessment of the abdomen, musculoskeletal system, eyes, and thorax. over the last decade, the use of diagnostic, point-of-care ultrasound at the bedside has been widely adopted by healthcare professionals in the united states. this technology has spread into many new areas of clinical medicine and more non-radiologists are seeking training and an up-to-date resource on use of the ultrasound machine. this book provides guidance on how to best approach patients with particular problems, practical guidelines on how to operate the machine and choose probes, descriptions and illustrations that depict the patient’s position and structures that are scanned, and the anatomy and pathophysiology of each area. practical point-of-care medical ultrasound is a valuable addition to the library of any resident, fellow, physician, or other healthcare provider who uses ultrasound in a clinical setting.

sonography introduction to normal structure and function 4th edition

reva arnez curry; betty bates tempkin

without a thorough knowledge of the appearance of normal anatomy, you may have a tough time recognizing abnormalities in ultrasound images. get a firm grounding in normal anatomy and physiology from an ultrasound perspective with sonography: introduction to normal structure and function, 4th edition. the new edition of this highly visual introductory text presents a wealth of ultrasound images, accompanied by labeled drawings with detailed legends, to increase your comfort with normal anatomy as it appears during scanning. its consistent chapter format makes the content easy to navigate and reinforces the discipline of following a standard protocol to scan each area of the body.

atlas of musculoskeletal ultrasound

by srivastava p.k.

the aim of the book, atlas of musculoskeletal ultrasound, is to provide most illustrative and comprehensive atlas on msk ultrasound. high-resolution ultrasound has become an integrated part of examination and investigation for musculoskeletal system pathologies. rapid advancement in technology and innovation of short focussed high resolution transducers have made ultrasound imaging of musculoskeletal system, a practical proposition. the excellent spatial resolution of ultrasound has made it a beautiful modality in comparison to ct and mri. the advancement in 3d technology has definitely given a new exciting tool to look into deep seated joints to find out the details of subtle fractures and other pathologies. the clinical images are incorporated to have easy correlation with ultrasound images. ct and mri images are also incorporated for better understanding.

sonography principles and instruments 9th edition

frederick w. kremkau

learn how diagnostic ultrasound works, and find out how to properly handle artifacts, scan safely, evaluate instrument performance, and prepare for registry examinations, with the market-leading sonography principles and instruments, 9th edition. it concisely and comprehensively covers the essential aspects of ultrasound physics and instrumentation like doppler, artifacts, safety, quality assurance, and the newest technology – all in a dynamic, highly visual format for easy review of key information. dr. kremkau, unlike others, uses extensive exam questions, over 1,000 high-quality illustrations, and only the most basic equations to simplify complicated concepts, making this text a highly respected reference for sonography students and professionals.

clinical sonography a practical guide

roger c. sanders
uniquely organized by symptom rather than organ or pathology, roger sanders’s clinical sonography, 5e, not only ensures mastery of the content and competencies required for diagnostic sonography, it teaches students to think critically and “sonographically” as they prepare for certification exams and clinical practice. in every chapter, students first encounter a diagnostic problem to be solved and then follow pathways of exploration that help them identify the cause of the original presenting symptom.

retaining its trademark concise, easy-to-understand writing style, consistent format, and clinical approach, the fifth edition is enhanced by a revised organization, new images and in-book learning tools, new content that reflects today’s practice environment, and a revised art and design program designed to meet the needs of today’s highly visual students.

radiography prep program review and exam preparation 8th edition

d. a. saia

everything radiography students need to ace the certification exam

hailed by doody’s review service as “the gold standard among instructors and students”, radiography prep delivers a concise summary of the entire radiography curriculum in a readable narrative.

written by an experienced program director, this is a true “must read” for certification or recertification. readers will find more than 850 arrt-style review questions (including a comprehensive 200-question practice exam), detailed answer explanations for correct and incorrect answers, more than 400 illustrations and radiographic images, and powerful learning aids such as summary boxes and a glossary.

  • market: 748 accredited radiography programs in the usa, with a total enrollment of 16,500 students
  • updated to reflect the most recent arrt radiography examination blueprint
  • interestingly written narrative style makes it easier to understand and remember key concepts

dorothy a. saia, ma, rt(r)(m) (stamford, ct) is director of the radiography program at stamford hospital. she has been teaching radiography for more than 35 years.

– see more at:

strandnesss duplex scanning in vascular disorders edition 4

by r. eugene zierler (editor)

the fourth edition of d. eugene strandness’s duplex scanning in vascular disorders has been significantly revised by a new team of authors. this book shows readers how to use this technique in evaluating patients with arterial and venous disease. chapters explain the physiologic principles of duplex scanning and methodically explore each of the major application areas: cerebrovascular, peripheral arterial, peripheral venous, visceral vascular, and specialized applications including assessment of aortic endografts, follow-up of carotid and peripheral artery stents, treatment of pseudoaneurysms, surveillance of infrainguinal bypass grafts, dialysis access procedures, and evaluation prior to coronary artery bypass grafts. each chapter is authored by a team consisting of an md and a sonography technologist. the book includes new doppler scan images.


diagnostic ultrasound imaging and blood flow measurements second edition

by k. kirk shung

offers an extensive discussion on high frequency ultrasound

based on a course taught and developed by a foremost expert in diagnostic ultrasound technology, diagnostic ultrasound: imaging and blood flow measurements, second edition covers cutting-edge developments, along with the fundamental physics, instrumentation, system architecture, clinical applications, and biological effects of ultrasound. this text addresses the technical side of diagnostic ultrasound and begins with an overview of the field of ultrasonic imaging and its role in diagnostic medicine relative to other imaging modalities. the author describes the fundamental physics involved in ultrasonic transducers, as well as in conventional imaging approaches and doppler measurements, including contrast imaging and 4d imaging. he reviews the current status and standards on ultrasound bioeffect and discusses methods that have been used to measure ultrasonic properties of tissues. he also provides a list of relevant references and further reading materials at the end of each chapter.

new in the second edition:

  • details the latest advances in ultrasound technology related to biomedical applications, including elastrography, portable scanners, ultrasound molecular imaging, preclinical high frequency imaging, 2d array, and 4d imaging techniques
  • updates and expands each chapter
  • adds a new chapter on new developments such as elastography and miniature scanners
  • includes new case studies and examples throughout the book

diagnostic ultrasound: imaging and blood flow measurements, second edition covers recent advances in ultrasound technology related to biomedical applications. intended for senior- to graduate-level coursework in ultrasonic imaging, this text also serves practicing physicists, engineers, clinicians, and sonographers.

ultrasound imaging and therapy

by aaron fenster

up-to-date details on using ultrasound imaging to help diagnose various diseases

due to improvements in image quality and the reduced cost of advanced features, ultrasound imaging is playing a greater role in the diagnosis and image-guided intervention of a wide range of diseases. ultrasound imaging and therapy highlights the latest advances in using ultrasound imaging in image-guided interventions and ultrasound-based therapy. the book presents current and emerging techniques, identifies trends in the use of ultrasound imaging, and addresses technical and computational problems that need to be solved.

the book is organized into three sections. the first section covers advances in technology, including transducers (2-d, 3-d, and 4-d), beamformers, 3-d imaging systems, and blood velocity estimation systems. the second section focuses on diagnostic applications, such as elastography, quantitative techniques for therapy monitoring and diagnostic imaging, and ultrasound tomography. the final section explains the use of ultrasound in image-guided interventions for image-guided biopsy and brain imaging.

ultrasound the requisites

barbara s. hertzberg; william d. middleton

this best-selling volume in the requisitest series provides a comprehensive introduction to timely ultrasound concepts, ensuring quick access to all the essential tools for the effective practice of ultrasonography.

comprehensive yet concise, “ultrasound” covers everything from basic principles to advanced state-of-the-art techniques. this title perfectly fulfills the career-long learning, maintenance of competence, reference, and review needs of residents, fellows, and practicing physicians.

diagnostic ultrasound 4th edition

deborah levine

diagnostic ultrasound, edited by carol m. rumack, stephanie r. wilson, j. william charboneau, and deborah levine, presents a greater wealth of authoritative, up-to-the-minute guidance on the ever-expanding applications of this versatile modality than you'll find in any other single source. preeminent experts help you reap the fullest benefit from the latest techniques for ultrasound imaging of the whole body…image-guided procedures…fetal, obstetric, and pediatric imaging…and more. this completely updated edition encompasses all of the latest advances, including 3d and 4d imaging, fetal imaging, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (ceus) of the liver and digestive tract, and much more – all captured through an abundance of brand-new images. and now, video clips for virtually every chapter allow you to see the sonographic presentation of various conditions in real time!

clinical ultrasound a how to guide

by tarina lee kang (editor), john bailitz (editor)

this practical, user-friendly book is the ultimate bedside/machine-side how-to manual. intended for beginner to intermediate us emergency ultrasound users, the picture-rich text provides clear and concise guidance on everything from ultrasound’s use in evaluating trauma and shock to ultrasound-guided nerve blocks and special pediatric applications. each chapter is formatted to address indications, image acquisition and interpretation, integration, and special considerations. plus, an appendix with references to landmark articles and useful websites with case studies, images, and videos is included for further exploration of the topics.


ultrasound of the male genitalia

by bruce r. gilbert (editor)

ultrasound of the male genitalia presents a comprehensive, evidence based reference as well as a practical guide for the performance and interpretation of the male genital ultrasound examination. the volume begins with the history of male genital ultrasound and includes a discussion of regulations surrounding the performance of ultrasound examinations by urologists. the book provides a comprehensive review of ultrasound physics, image quality and patient safety. normal ultrasound anatomy and common pathologic findings are covered in depth. illustrations are used throughout the text to clarify complex topics. practical scanning prools for both the testes and the phallus, which are compliant with both accrediting organizations and third party payers, are described with their corresponding images. also, included is a detailed discussion of color, power and spectral doppler as well developing technologies such as sonoelastography in the diagnosis of male genitalia pathology.

with broad contributions from authorities in the field, ultrasound of the male genitalia is a valuable resource to urologists, andrologists, fellows and residents and others interested in male genital ultrasound.


pelvic floor ultrasound principles applications and case studies

by lewis chan (editor), vincent tse (editor), stephanie the (editor), peter stewart (editor)

there is increasing interest in using ultrasound for assessment of pelvic floor disorders such as voiding dysfunction , pelvic organ prolapse and faecal incontinence. ultrasound can also be a useful imaging modality for urodynamics and pelvic floor physiotherapy. whilst ultrasound equipment is widely available around the world many clinicians may not have access to structured training in the technique of pelvic floor imaging and interpretation of images in the context of pelvic floor dysfunction. this book aims to provide the reader with the knowledge and skills to start utilising ultrasound imaging in assessment of pelvic floor disorders. the authors comprise the three surgical disciplines (urology, colorectal surgery and gynaecology) who commonly manage pelvic floor problems and have subspecialty expertise in pelvic floor imaging. they have conducted workshops in australia, asia, uk and usa and are advocates for clinican-performed ultrasound.

radcases ultrasound imaging

by nami r. azar, carolyn donaldson

ultrasound imaging refines your ultrasound diagnostic skills and prepares you for board exams in radiology.

features of ultrasound imaging:

  • covers a wide range of radiological specialties, including renal, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, thyroid, vascular, pediatric, and obstetric
  • each case includes valuable tips to help readers properly interpret ultrasound images and avoid potential pitfalls
  • nearly 100 high-quality color illustrations and 350 black and white radiographs demonstrating key ultrasound imaging cases

a practical guide to 3d ultrasound

by reem s. abu-rustum

a practical guide to 3d ultrasound was conceived with the beginner in mind. the guide summarizes the basics of 3d sonography in a concise manner and serves as a practical reference for daily practice. it is written in easy-to-read language and contains tables summarizing the step-by-step instructions for the techniques presented.

following introductory chapters covering the various technical aspects of 3d ultrasound, the book covers clinical applications of 3d ultrasound in the first trimester and for the fetal cardiovascular, genitourinary, and central nervous systems. clinical applications of fetal anatomical structures such as the skeleton, chest, face, and gastrointestinal tract are also discussed. in addition, the clinical applicability of 3d ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology is explored.

the book is highly illustrated and contains more than 350 ultrasound images, many in color, corresponding to the techniques discussed. a table of practical tips is also included at the end of every chapter. this book is a practical and comprehensive reference for the basics surrounding 3d ultrasound.

pocket protocols for sonography scanning 4th edition

by betty bates tempkin

take the guesswork out of image documentation with pocket protocols for sonography scanning, 4th edition. this compact new edition provides protocols that follow the imaging guidelines of the american institute of ultrasound in medicine (aium), including a universal method for documenting any type of pathology. examples of the required images for the physician’s diagnostic interpretation are included. documentation specifics are provided for full and limited abdominal studies, gynecological and obstetric exams, and prostate evaluations. also provided are protocols for small parts, vascular system, and echocardiography.

  • protocols following guidelines provided by aium provide standardized scanning methods and image documentation.
  • step-by-step instructions for sonographic studies of various organs and body areas reinforce aium protocols while scanning.
  • over 700 images create a visual step-by-step scanning approach to the performance of scans and image documentation for physician diagnostic interpretation.
  • new! musculoskeletal protocols offer the images and information needed to properly scan musculoskeletal anatomy.
  • new! 2-color streamlined design enhances readability.
  • new! new images complete all the protocols approved by the aium.
  • new! smaller size makes the pocket guide easier to carry around.
  • new! part dividers with bleed allow for quick access to desired protocols.

sonography scanning principles and protocols

by betty bates tempkin

presents a visual, step-by-step method for scanning and image documentation to provide diagnostic sonograms for physicians. scanning principles and specific instructions are provided to improve the quality of sonographic studies and establish standardization. the text includes criteria for professionalism and clinical skills, plus requisites for handling ultrasound equipment, image labeling, image technique, and case presentation. a universal method for scanning and documenting pathologies is provided. the protocol chapters provide detailed scanning protocols for the major blood vessels and organs of the abdomen, the male and female pelvic regions and obstetrics. protocols for the abdomen, scrotum, thyroid gland, breast, neonatal brain, vascular and cardiac systems are also included.


differential diagnosis in ultrasound imaging

by guenter schmidt

praise for the previous edition:
remarkable, richly illustrated textbook…enriched by numerous demonstrative illustrations … the quality of all the 2397 illustrations is an iconographic achievement. practically no criticism can be raised for this most remarkable book, which one expects will have a wide diffusion.clinical imaging

differential diagnosis in ultrasound imaging, second edition, is a complete revision and extension of this best-selling thieme title, bringing it up to date with the very latest clinical and technological standards. with a specific focus on general abdominal, genitourinary, and thyroid pathologies, it guides readers systematically through the process of sonographic differential diagnosis. the inclusion of images with variant courses and atypical sonographs ensures comprehensive coverage of this highly efficient diagnostic tool.

key features of the second edition:

  • more than 1,100 new high-quality images, bringing the total number of illustrations to over 2,800
  • draws upon the full spectrum of modern ultrasound modalities, including contrast-enhanced ultrasound (ceus), doppler, color doppler, and elastography
  • navigational flow charts included in each chapter summarize possible diagnoses at a glance to ensure swift access to key information
  • clear layout with color-coded text boxes and tips, tricks, and pitfalls to help guide readers through the differential diagnosis process

this new edition will be an essential reference for all residents and physicians using ultrasound on a day-to-day basis for diagnostic purposes, including practicing radiologists, internists, and ultrasound technicians.

ultrasound in the intensive care unit

by matthew jankowich (editor), eric gartman (editor)

ultrasound in the intensive care unitexplores the current state of evidence supporting use of bedside ultrasound for procedural guidance and for the critical care-focused assessment of a variety of organ systems.this text covers standard practice areas, such as ultrasound guidance for vascular access in the icu, as well as novel, less well-known applications such as the use of ultrasound for assessment of diaphragm function in patients with respiratory current ultrasound education is often dependent on widely varying local expertise, this book serves as a standard reference in what is at present a fragmented and challenging field of study for busy providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of critical care ultrasonography, with content contributed by experts in the field, this text will serve as a valuable resource that will allow education in critical care ultrasound to keep pace with the rapid technological growth that has driven this vital area of critical care medicine.ultrasound in the intensive care unitis essential reading for pulmonologists, practitioners in internal, hospitalist, and critical care medicine; educators and instructors in critical care ultrasound; and medical students, residents, and critical care trainees.

doppler sonography in infancy and childhood

by karl-heinz deeg, thomas rupprecht, michael hofbeck

this book covers the full range of current applications of doppler sonography in infancy and childhood, describing the variety of potential findings with the aid of a wealth of images. after an introductory chapter on the physical and technical basis of doppler sonography, applications of cerebral doppler sonography in infancy and of transcranial doppler sonography in childhood are addressed, with numerous examples of imaging appearances. the major part of the book is devoted to doppler sonography of the brain, face and neck and of the abdomen, covering normal abdominal vessels, liver, spleen, pancreas, and mesenteric and renal circulation. imaging of the ovaries and testes is also presented, encompassing the differential diagnosis of acute scrotum and other space-occupying lesions of the testis. the book closes by considering doppler sonography of soft tissue and vascular malformations, and the influence of congenital heart malformations on flow parameters in peripheral arteries. doppler sonography in infancy and childhood will be an invaluable reference for pediatricians, neonatologists, pediatric sonographers, and pediatric and general radiologists.

interventional ultrasound a practical guide and atlas

by christoph frank dietrich

the first comprehensive, multi-specialty text on ultrasound guidance in interventional procedures, this book uses the authors extensive clinical experience to provide a full overview of modern interventional ultrasound. for all practitioners, whether new to the procedures or already using them, interventional ultrasoundoffers expert advice and solutions to commonly encountered questions and problems.

offering easy-to-follow instructions and nearly 600 high-quality illustrations, interventional ultrasoundtakes a practical, cookbook approach ideal for daily use in the hospital or clinic. it is an indispensable reference for interventional radiologists, gastroenterologists, internists, surgeons and other specialists who need to stay up-to-date on the newest technology and applications in this rapidly advancing field.

point of care ultrasound fundamentals principles devices and patient safety

by paul r. wagner, wayne r. hedrick

introducing the first definitive training guide to point-of-care ultrasound

whether you’re a medical student or other health professional, this complete, one-stop tutorial takes you through everything you need to know about ultrasound scanners and their use across the full range of medical settings. here, you’ll get an incisive, step-by-step overview of the physical principles of ultrasound with detailed explanations of how each control works and why it’s needed.

point-of-care ultrasound fundamentals is the one clinical resource that will take your familiarity with portable ultrasound to the next level. no other sourcebook goes further to help you master ultrasound tools and techniques–so you can maximize the quality of diagnostic information obtained during the examination while ensuring patient safety and observing ergonomically-sound scanning techniques.


  • covers the rapid adoption of new point-of-care ultrasound devices, from simple cell phone-size units to highly sophisticated and costly multi-transducer scanners offering 2d real-time, duplex doppler, and color flow imaging
  • emphasis on ensuring ultrasound safety offers insight into ultrasound interactions with tissue and the amount of energy transmitted to the patient, particularly when scanning the fetus
  • detailed descriptions of universal scanning techniques include diagrams and photographs illustrating correct and incorrect scanning methods to help prevent sonographer injury
  • excellent pedagogy includes chapter-opening learning objectives and key terms
  • numerous tables and figures throughout include precisely reproduced ultrasound images

pocket guide to sonography

by regina swearengin

this compact resource offers ready access to information on exam preparation, equipment selection, clinical history, lab findings, etiology, and sonographic appearance for a wide variety of disorders. based on the presenting symptoms, the reader is guided to the proper sections of the pocket guide to find information on disorders likely to cause the symptom. each disorder section covers the most common causes of the disorder, related abnormal lab values, and sonographic appearance. following these instructions, the sonographer can provide the physician with everything needed to make an accurate diagnosis, so the patient does not have to be called back for additional scanning.

convenient pocket-size format is easy to carry in lab coat pocket and organized with tabs to facilitate finding information quickly.

carefully chosen information provides just what the sonographer needs to scan competently — allowing the sonographer to gather all information the physician needs to make a diagnosis.

all routine exams are presented for ob/gyn, abdominal, and superficial structures, plus some of the less commonly performed exams for which even experienced sonographers may need help.

leads the sonographer from the patient’s symptoms to the appropriate scanning protocol, rather than assuming a given diagnosis and providing a scanning protocol to confirm the diagnosis.

the next step provides more detailed scanning information, alerting the sonographer to other scanning that should be done based on the initial findings.

line drawings show relevant ultrasound images, providing example of anatomy that should be visualized on the scan.